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This means there will be slippage in delivery beyond the three month expected timeline. The projected benefits of these investments were then displayed by two researchers who showed how they utilise current e-Research infrastructure. They addressed how the increased compute capacity coming through RLP investment will benefit their projects. Dr Alistair Revell from The School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering presented his work exploring the simulation of fluid and air dynamics.

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The present invention relates to a kind of method of the voice-and-data synchronous transmission SVD in mobile communication system. Usually, will be divided into synchro system based on the mobile communication system of code division multiple access CDMA , global positioning system GPS is used in the base station of this system, and portable terminal base when waiting moves; And asynchronous system, this system base-station does not use GPS. Business in this CDMA mobile communication system can be divided into voice communication service, use the short message service of signaling and the wireless data service of using grouped data.

Yet portable terminal and the base station with IS issue version A conformance to standard can not provide the SVS business. Further, with after the selected individual various-service of voice and grouped data carries out each service negotiation, process that two kinds of communication services is multiplexed into main communication service and secondary communication business or demultiplexing communication service of needs.

In addition,, provide,, just can provide the SVD business if carried out extra service negotiation process more than a kind of business in order in initial call establishment, only to provide a kind of when professional among voice and the grouped data. In order to increase more business option when any one business of voice and grouped data is provided, an IS issue version A has stipulated the miscellaneous service request message in addition. With voice with grouped data is combined into a kind of communication service and be to be finished by the multiplex sublayer of medium access control MAC sublayer that is arranged in business interface structure illustrated in fig.

In other words, multiplex sublayer is come the bit combination of specified speech and grouped data according to the determined multiplexing type of the service negotiation process between portable terminal and the base station.

During the service negotiation process, according to first business option between voice in the Frame that is included in the SVD business and the grouped data and second business option, the type of traffic of possible combination is divided into main communication service and secondary communication business and signaling communication service.

These all are assigned with. In more detail, the SVD service negotiation process of the prior art in CDMA mobile communication system is by being divided into communication service first communication service and second communication business, for voice and grouped data have been distributed each business option, and with multiplexing each data of standard transmission speed.

Owing in initial call establishment, when carrying out service negotiation, only support a business option, therefore distributed first communication service. When carrying out second service negotiation, distribute first communication service and second communication business for SVD. Multiplex sublayer is with the multiplexing Frame MuxPDV that becomes of voice communication service, packet data communication services and signaling communication service, as described in Fig.

The problem that provides SVD to exist aspect professional in the CDMA mobile communication system of correlation technique is that portable terminal and base station should be satisfied IS issue version A that allow the SVD business at least. Because the service negotiation process of supplementary service is similar to the service negotiation process of carrying out in the initial call establishment, so the process that the SVD business is carried out is complicated. In initial call establishment, only carrying out to carry out the service negotiation process of adding after service negotiation carries out call setup for a kind of business as voice and Packet data service.

Further, provide another problem of the prior art systems existence of SVD business to be: when asking speech business and Packet data service simultaneously, it need take a long time up to all service negotiations of speech business and Packet data service and finish.

On the other hand, when portable terminal receives Packet data service, carry out call establishment for the SVD business and ask start business or voice of voice to stop the professional query that do not have.

Above reference is hereby incorporated by, and it has been applicable to additional or alternative details, feature and or the suitable examples of technical background. A purpose of enforcement of the present invention provides a kind of SVD business that is used to transmit and receive voice and grouped data. A purpose of enforcement of the present invention is to distribute a kind of new voice rlp frame type. A purpose of enforcement of the present invention is to increase new voice rlp frame type in rlp frame.

Rlp frame is a transmission of packet data standard in the CDMA mobile communication system. A purpose of enforcement of the present invention is by distributing a kind of new SVD business option or additional signaling message exchange, using a business option to carry out the SVD call treatment between portable terminal and base station. A purpose of enforcement of the present invention is that professional required various signaling procedures of SVD or multiplexing reconciliation multiplex process are simplified.

A purpose of enforcement of the present invention is can provide the SVD business by the portable terminal and the base station of carrying out the SVD call treatment between portable terminal that only has a business option and base station, making the SVD business can not be provided. To achieve these goals, the present invention provides a kind of method of carrying out the SVD business in mobile communication system whole or in part, this method comprises: by using the SVD business option, support the SVD call treatment of SVD business between portable terminal and base station; And after the service negotiation that uses the SVD business option is finished, by utilizing rlp frame to transmit and receiving voice and grouped data provides SVD business.

Preferably, the SVD call treatment of above-mentioned carrying out by using the SVD business option is to be different from the voice service option of previous appointment or business reference ID is specified and used to the new SVD business option of packet data service option.

Further, in order to realize above-mentioned all or part of purpose, the method of the SVD business in the another kind of mobile communication system is provided, this method comprises: when packet call foundation is finished between portable terminal and base station, ask simultaneously under the situation of SVD business, support the SVD call treatment of SVD business by the exchange of SVD request message; And after finishing service negotiation, utilize rlp frame transmission and reception voice and grouped data that SVD is provided business by SVD demand signalling message.

Preferably, the method for the SVD business in the mobile communication business further comprises: for rlp frame transmission and reception voice and grouped data, finish voice RLP module at media access control sublayer, it is combined to rlp frame with speech frame, and tells speech frame from rlp frame.

Preferably, the method for the SVD business in the mobile communication business, it uses the incompatible distribution voice of unappropriated hyte rlp frame type in the frame type field of data rlp frame, so that utilize rlp frame to transmit and receive voice and grouped data. Preferably, the method for the SVD business of mobile communication business, it uses in the incompatible distribution voice of the unappropriated hyte of the control field of data rlp frame rlp frame type, so that utilize rlp frame to transmit and receive voice and grouped data.

Preferably, described by utilizing rlp frame to transmit and receiving voice and grouped data provides the step of SVD business to comprise: as, packet data frame to be transformed to the data rlp frame or speech frame is transformed to the voice rlp frame by using untapped frame type field or control field in the data rlp frame. Preferably, if speech frame is the full-speed voice frame, then by using in the untapped bit combination of the frame type field of data rlp frame, speech frame is transformed to the voice rlp frame, and should comprise by the voice rlp frame of full-speed voice frame transform: speech frame information, represent which kind of frame type is 3 frame type informations of voice rlp frame type.

In addition, specific embodiments of the invention comprise mobile communication equipment, it is included in the business interface that media access control sublayer has voice radio link protocol RLP module and data RLP module, and this interface is arranged to by using rlp frame to transmit together and receiving voice and grouped data. Attendant advantages of the present invention, purpose and feature will partly be set forth in description subsequently, and concerning one of ordinary skill in the art, by following inspection or from learning by doing of the present invention, above-mentioned Partial Feature will be conspicuous.

Objects and advantages of the present invention can be according to referring in particular to out realization and acquisition in the appended claim. Describe the present invention in detail with reference to the following drawings, wherein identical reference number is represented components identical, wherein:. The portable terminal of prior art that Figure 1A and 1B are examples and the additional signaling process between the base station are used for providing SVD business in CDMA mobile communication system;.

To be that expression is according to an embodiment of the invention be used for explaining with the full-speed voice frame transform to be the figure of the structure of the rlp frame type handled of the rate at full speed of the method for voice rlp frame for Fig. Figure 11 A, 11B, 11C, 11D are the figure that the frame structure of voice rlp frame is appointed as in expression. According to one embodiment of present invention, by a new voice rlp frame type is increased to the rlp frame that is used in packet data service option transmission standard grouped data in CDMA mobile communication system, can provide the SVD business by only carrying out a business option that is used for transmitting together and receiving voice and grouped data, make portable terminal and the base station that to support the SVD business.

Further, by only carrying out a business option that is used for transmitting together and receiving voice and grouped data, support the portable terminal and the base station of SVD business that the SVD business can be provided.

Be used to provide the portable terminal of SVD business can use the method the same with the general calling processing procedure of grouped data with call handling process between the base station. By defining a new SVD business option or exchanging by additional signaling information, this call handling process can carry out the SVD call treatment.

By the method for distributing a kind of new SVD business option to carry out the SVD call treatment be new SVD business option distribution service with reference to ID, rather than already used voice service option or already used packet data service option. After tool is finished with the service negotiation of SVD business option, use voice and grouped data together by utilizing rlp frame, this new SVD business option provides SVD business.

On the other hand, finish with the SVD business option after packet data call sets up, carrying out the signaling message exchange that the method for SVD call treatment is added by additional signaling message exchange.

Should carry out the method for SVD call treatment by additional signaling message exchange, by using rlp frame to transmit and receiving voice and grouped data is exchanged by the signaling message that adds SVD is provided business.

As shown in Figure 5, the business interface between portable terminal and base station also has a voice RLP module at media access control sublayer except data RLP module, so that use a RLP to send and receive voice and grouped data together.

These data RLP module carries out on the upper strata from rlp frame discrete packets Frame or on the upper strata packet data frame being combined into rlp frame. Voice RLP module carries out on the upper strata separating speech frame or on the upper strata speech frame being combined into rlp frame from rlp frame. Transmitting apparatus is by providing sequence number to transmit data to data. Receiving equipment receives data by the order by sequence number and comes deal with data.

If find mistake in receiving data sequence, then receiving equipment asks to resend corresponding data by sending NAK message to transmitting apparatus. Can send and receive rlp frame by a primary channel FCH basic channel. The RLP module will be divided into data rlp frame and voice rlp frame at the rlp frame that multiplex sublayer is merged into a communication service.

This data rlp frame has different transmission speeds and length. Correspondingly, one embodiment of the present of invention use in existing data rlp frame not the frame type field of usefulness as voice rlp frame type. For above-mentioned four kinds of voice rlp frames are made a distinction with the data rlp frame, use untapped frame type in existing data rlp frame comes specified speech rlp frame type.

For the speech frame that will receive from the upper strata is transformed into the voice rlp frame, define and used in the data rlp frame not 2 or 3 of the frame type field of usefulness or control field 1,4 or 6 in addition.

Further, the method that speech frame is transformed to the voice rlp frame is divided into two kinds of method in common. These two kinds of universal methods are to be the method for voice rlp frame and the method that half rate speech frame or the speech frame that is lower than half rate is transformed into the voice rlp frame with the full-speed voice frame transform.

At first with reference to Fig. At this moment, the factor of distinguishing full rate rlp frame type is frame type TYPE field, and frame type field is a two or three-digit.

In other words, when using RLP form A, frame type is appointed as in speed group 1 " ", and in speed group 2, be appointed as " 01 ". When using RLP form B, the frame type of a new frame is appointed as " " in speed group 1, and in speed group 2, is assigned as " 10 ".

Further, when using RLP form B, the frame type of retransmission frame is appointed as " " in speed group 1, and in speed group 2, is appointed as " 11 ". Because the full rate rlp frame has used " " in speed group 1, " ", " ", and in speed group 2, used " 01 ", " 10 " and " 11 ", embodiments of the invention pass through to use the untapped bit combination of frame type field as " " in the speed group 1, " ", " 00 " in " " and " " and the speed group 2 any one value specifies full-speed voice rlp frame type can distinguish data rlp frame and voice rlp frame at an easy rate, so that by becoming the voice rlp frame to use the voice rlp frame full-speed voice frame transform.

But bit combination ' ' is as voice rlp frame type, even use " " in speed group 1, this is owing to it is to keep in order to prevent from the bit combination that is used to fill in " " and other RLP forms obscured. Secondly, the speech frame of explaining the conversion half rate speech frame or being lower than half rate to 10B with reference to Fig. Comprise control frame shown in Fig. Shown in Fig.

Having illustrated Fig. Figure 10 A and 10B have illustrated that infilled frame and idle frame may use 4 bits. In the frame structure shown in Figure 10 A, bit combination " xx " is designated as infilled frame.

Shown in Figure 10 B, bit combination " xx " is designated as idle frame. Figure 11 A, 11B, 11C, 11D represent to use current frame type field or the incompatible frame assumption diagram that speech frame is transformed into the voice rlp frame of the untapped hyte of control field at the data rlp frame.

Figure 11 A represents the full-speed voice rlp frame. In CDMA mobile communication system according to an embodiment of the invention,, provide SVD business in the mode that sends and receive voice and grouped data together by only using a business option no matter whether portable terminal and base station support the SVD business.

This SVD call treatment can exchange and carries out by setting a new SVD business option or additional signaling message. After finishing call setup, send and receive a data rlp frame according to conventional method according to the SVD call treatment. On the contrary, when using the voice rlp frame, use frame type field incompatible transmission of untapped certain hyte and reception full-speed voice rlp frame in current existing data rlp frame.

As mentioned above, embodiments of the invention are by specifying a new voice rlp frame type and by this new speech rlp frame type is added in the transmission of packet data standard, can providing the SVD business that can send and receive voice and grouped data together.

Further, embodiments of the invention carry out the SVD call treatment by only using a business option between portable terminal and base station, by not supporting the portable terminal of SVD business and base station that SVD is provided business in the past.

This is by setting new SVD business option or additional signaling message, and provides the SVD business to realize by send and receive voice and grouped data together with rlp frame. Correspondingly, embodiments of the invention provide the professional method and apparatus of synchronous transmission voice-and-data SVD in mobile communication system.

Further, by providing professional as a business option according to tentative standard IS in code division multiple access CDMA mobile communication system, this SVD business can provide speech business and Packet data service simultaneously. The foregoing description and advantage only are exemplary, should not regard restriction of the present invention as.

Existing instruction of the present invention can be applied to the equipment of other types at an easy rate.

Description of the invention is intended to exemplary, rather than is used to limit the scope of claim. Many alternative, modifications and variations are readily appreciated that for a person skilled in the art.

In the claims, the clause that device adds function is intended to cover described here as the structure of carrying out described function, and is not only structural equivalence and is the structure of equivalence. Granted publication date : Termination date : The invention discloses the method and apparatus of the voice-and-data simultaneous interpretation business SVD in a kind of mobile communication system.

In CDMA mobile communication system, by specifying a kind of new voice rlp frame type, and this new speech rlp frame type is added in the rlp frame transmission standard of grouped data, the SVD business can be provided.

WO1997023073A1 - Multichannel high-speed data transfer - Google Patents

Macromolecular Crystallography with Synchrotron Radiation. John R. Cambridge University Press , This highly illustrated monograph provides a comprehensive study of the structure and function of proteins, nucleic acids and viruses using synchrotron radiation and crystallography.

The present invention relates to high-speed multichannel data services HSCSD on a radio interface of a mobile communication system. In mobile telecommunication systems of the time division multiple access TDMA type, time-division communication takes place on the radio path in successive TDMA frames, each of which consists of several time slots. In each time slot, a short information packet is sent as a radio frequency burst which has a finite duration and which consists of a set of modulated bits.

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Delay in construction projects is a common phenomenon and a costly problem. This paper addresses the issues of financial-related delays in construction projects. It identifies the root causes and scrutinises the suitable mitigation actions of financial-related project delays. Four main factors were identified in the literature, namely late payment, poor cash flow management, insufficient financial resources and financial market instability. Primary data were collected by way of a preliminary interview, questionnaire survey and in-depth structured interviews. A total of responses were obtained from a combination of clients, contractors, consultants and bankers. The result revealed that poor cash flow management is the most significant factor that leads to a project's delay followed by late payment, insufficient financial resources and financial market instability. Contractors' instable financial background, client's poor financial and business management, difficulties in obtaining loan from financiers and inflation were identified as the most significant underlying causes. The study findings indicate that clients play the most important role in reducing the impact of financial problems towards the extent of project's delay. Several suitable mitigation actions were suggested by the respondents.

Financial-related causes contributing to project delays

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The present invention relates to a kind of method of the voice-and-data synchronous transmission SVD in mobile communication system. Usually, will be divided into synchro system based on the mobile communication system of code division multiple access CDMA , global positioning system GPS is used in the base station of this system, and portable terminal base when waiting moves; And asynchronous system, this system base-station does not use GPS. Business in this CDMA mobile communication system can be divided into voice communication service, use the short message service of signaling and the wireless data service of using grouped data. Yet portable terminal and the base station with IS issue version A conformance to standard can not provide the SVS business.

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Вы не скажете, где они могли остановиться. Клушар закрыл глаза, силы покинули. Он едва дышал. - Хоть что-нибудь, - настаивал Беккер.  - Может, вы знаете имя этой женщины.

К тому времени когда компьютер разгадает пароль и взломает шифр, информация, содержащаяся в послании, утратит всякую ценность.

Оказавшись в условиях подлинного разведывательного затемнения, АНБ выпустило секретную директиву, одобренную президентом Соединенных Штатов. Заручившись поддержкой федеральных фондов и получив карт-бланш на все необходимые меры для решения проблемы, АНБ приступило к созданию невозможного - первой универсальной машины для вскрытия шифров.

Вопреки широко распространенному мнению о том, что такой компьютер создать невозможно, АНБ осталось верным своему девизу: возможно все; на невозможное просто требуется больше времени.

На бумажке был электронный адрес Северной Дакоты. NDAKOTAARA. ANON.

- Какая правда. Стратмор тяжело дышал.

Сейф Бигглмана, - протянула Сьюзан. Стратмор кивнул. Сейф Бигглмана представляет собой гипотетический сценарий, когда создатель сейфа прячет внутри его ключ, способный его открыть. Чтобы ключ никто не нашел, Танкадо проделал то же самое с Цифровой крепостью. Он спрятал свой ключ, зашифровав его формулой, содержащейся в этом ключе.

По ее щеке скатилась слеза. - Что с тобой? - в голосе Стратмора слышалась мольба. Лужа крови под телом Хейла расползалась на ковре, напоминая пятно разлитой нефти. Стратмор смущенно посмотрел на труп, затем перевел взгляд на Сьюзан. Неужели она узнала. Этого не может .

Женщина нахмурилась: - Извините, сэр. Этим рейсом улетели несколько пассажиров, купивших билет перед вылетом. Но мы не имеем права сообщать информацию личного характера… - Это очень важно, - настаивал Беккер.

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