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Female intimate partner violence

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Screening women for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings

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Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is the most common and major public health problem and human rights issue worldwide and has a negative effect on the lives of both mother and fetus. Despite its prominence, this issue has received little attention in Ethiopia as well as many sub-Saharan African countries.

This study assessed the magnitude of intimate partner violence and associated factors among pregnant women in Ofla District, Tigray, Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to 30, , among pregnant women who visited antenatal care in the health facilities. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with violence.

The overall prevalence of intimate partner violence during the current pregnancy was More than one-third of pregnant women experienced intimate partner violence during a recent pregnancy.

This is high and may lead to health consequences for both mothers and fetuses. Intimate partner violence is defined as the intentional use of physical force or power threatened or actual against a woman or man within a relationship which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, psychological harm, and death [ 1 ].

It is one of the most common forms of violence against women and major public health human rights issues that causes physical, sexual, and psychological harm including the act of physical aggression, sexual coercion, and psychological abuse by current or former intimate partners [ 1 , 2 ].

The millennium development goal was targeted to improve maternal health by reducing maternal mortality and universal access to reproductive health by Although substantial progress has been made globally, outcomes in the number of developing countries were limited [ 7 ].

The elimination of all forms of violence against women is one part of the recently adopted Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals SDG to achieve gender equality and to empower all women [ 4 , 7 ]. Pregnancy has been identified as a period of increased risk for exposure to violence, and the vulnerability of pregnant women to violence and to their consequences is an alarming public health issue in developing countries [ 8 ].

Intimate partner violence IPV during pregnancy is of concern as the possible consequences pose risk to both mother and the unborn child [ 2 ]. It has many adverse consequences including pregnancy-related complications inadequate, labor complications, stillbirth, preterm delivery, induced abortion, and deaths , mental health problems and poor emotional well-being emotional distress, depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and poor attachment , cognitive and behavioral problems increased aggression, antisocial behavior, lower social competence, and impaired cognitive functioning , behaviors presenting risks to health including alcohol and drug misuse and eating disorders, and physical injuries are some of them [ 5 , 9 — 11 ].

Although studies on violence against women in Africa are scarce, available data showed All over the world, sub-Saharan African SSA countries have recorded the highest levels of violence against women [ 2 ]. A systematic review in Africa showed that IPV during pregnancy ranged from 2. Even though Ethiopia has put in place appropriate and effective legal policies to promote the rights of women, violence against women continues to be a major challenge [ 7 ].

There is also a paucity of countrywide evidence about domestic violence against women in Ethiopia [ 15 ].

Women experienced They are also characterized by low levels of education and lack of decision-making power which further makes them less assertive and more dependent on their male partners, thereby increasing their likelihood of experiencing violence during pregnancy [ 16 ].

Unplanned pregnancy and cultural attitudes towards violence by the community are also factors that appear to place in certain women at a somewhat greater risk to IPV [ 15 , 16 ]. In Ethiopia, even though there is some improvement in decreasing violence against women, little attention is given for violence committed by intimate partners, especially for pregnant women. Moreover, studies on violence against women, particularly IPV during pregnancy, are limited in the study area.

This study was therefore designed to assess the magnitude of intimate partner violence interims of physical, sexual, and psychological violence and associated factors among pregnant women during their current pregnancy. It is bounded in the south by Alamata, in the west by Amhara Region, in the north by Endamehoni, and in the east by Raya Azebo. It has 24 kebeles 21 rural and 3 urban.

The district also has a total population of ,, of which 87, Regarding the health infrastructure, there is one general hospital, seven health centers, and 25 health posts that serve the population in the district. About pregnant women were followed during their antenatal clinic ANC in the public health facilities seven health centers and one general hospital in [ 17 ]. The study was conducted from March 1 to 30, A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted.

All pregnant women who were attending antenatal care ANC services in the public health facilities of Ofla District were the source population. Pregnant women who were receiving ANC in the public health facilities during the data collection period constituted the study population. Pregnant women with severe danger signs of pregnancy vaginal bleeding and severe frontal headache were excluded. The calculated sample size for this was Since the sample size of the second objective was higher than the first objective , the total sample in this study was For the sampling procedure, first, all public health facilities seven health centers and one general hospital in Ofla District were considered.

Pregnant women who attended ANC clinics for an average of six months in were used to estimate recruitment from each health facility. The average client flow per month and per day in the eight public health facilities of Ofla Falla, Zata, Korem, Hashenge, Lat, Sesela, and Mymaido health centers and the Korem general hospital was considered, and proportional allocation PPS was used. A systematic random sampling SRS technique was used to select study participants, and every third pregnant woman was chosen based on their visiting order until the sample size was met.

Data were collected by 10 midwives who were all females, which creates an opportunity for disclosure of violence by the women. Two public health officers and the principal investigator supervised the data collection procedures. Data collectors and supervisors were trained for two days on interviewing techniques, the purpose of the study, the importance of privacy, the sensitivity of the issue, discipline and approach to the interviewees, and confidentiality of the respondents.

The collected data were cross-checked on each day of activity for consistency and completeness, double-entry of data and cleaning of data using frequency, sorting, and listing to identify any missed value and outlier were made, and identified errors were cross-checked with the original questionnaire.

Women who reported that they experienced any act of physical, sexual, or emotional psychological violence or any combination of the three by an intimate partner during current pregnancy [ 6 ]. Current husband, cohabited live in the same house without formal marriage , or boyfriend [ 19 ].

Women who reported that they experienced one or more acts such as slapped, pushed, shoved, pulled, throw something that could hurt, choked, burning on purpose, hit abdomen with a fist or with something else and if a gun, knife, or any other weapon was used against woman by an intimate partner during current pregnancy [ 8 ]. Women who reported that they experienced one or more acts such as insult, humiliation, intimidate, or scared on purpose by an intimate partner during the current pregnancy [ 10 ].

Women who reported that they experienced one or more acts or threats such as forced into sexual intercourse when she did not want, had sexual intercourse when she did not want to because she was afraid of what partner might do, and forced to do something sexual that she found degrading or humiliating by an intimate partner during current pregnancy [ 18 ]. The index for decision-making power composed of four questions. For each item, the response was with scores as 2 if a woman made a sole decision, 1 if she was involved with a partner or someone else, and 0 otherwise.

The total score on decision-making power was 8. Hence, those women who scored four and above were categorized as having high decision-making power, whereas those scored less than four were categorized as women with low decision-making power [ 21 ]. The data were first coded, entered, and cleaned using the Epi-data version 4. Then, information was presented using frequencies, summary measures, tables, and figures.

The principal component analysis was used to produce wealth quintiles to show and reveal the socioeconomic status of the households. The bivariable analysis was carried out to see the association of each independent variable with the outcome variable IPV. The colinearity test was carried out to see the correlation between independent variables using the standard error.

A Hosmer—Lemeshow and Omnibus tests were conducted to test model goodness of fit. The multivariable analysis was performed in the binary logistic regression up on controlling for the possible confounding factors. Finally, variables with a value of less than 0. Informed, voluntary, written, and signed consent was obtained from each head of the health facilities and each participant after clearly informing them about the purpose, risk, and benefit of the study.

A total of pregnant women were interviewed, making a response rate of The mean age of participants was Near to half Three hundred and forty More than half of the pregnant women Regarding partners of pregnant women, about More than half Nearly nine out of ten Regarding the capacity of decision making on household issues, one in three Three hundred and sixty Among the interviewed pregnant women, In this study, the prevalence of three forms of intimate partner violence during the current pregnancy was high.

Psychological violence was the most common followed by sexual and physical violence. One hundred and thirty-five Out of this number, insults and making her feel bad Seventy-two Out of this number, slapped, pushed, or hair-pulling was 51 9. Ninety-five pregnant women Out of this number, 63 This study also assessed the overlapping occurrence more than one form of violence against women.

Among those pregnant women who experienced IPV, In the majority of respondents, Overall, the prevalence of IPV during the current pregnancy was Unplanned pregnancy, being unmarried, acceptance of violence by women, discussion-making power of a woman in the household issues, having alcohol drinking partner, spouses multiple sexual partners status, and undesired current pregnancy by an intimate partner were significant factors associated with IPV during their current pregnancy.

This result But this is lower as compared to the studies carried out in Zimbabwe The possible reason for the difference might be due to the difference in study designs. For example, a study conducted in Ethiopia, Abay Chamo [ 11 ], was a community-based study.

However, this study was facility based which may miss those women who were not visiting the health facilities for antenatal care services. The difference might be due to the difference in duration.

For example, studies in South Africa and Mozambique [ 26 , 27 ] were focused on the lifetime prevalence of violence, but this study focused only on the current pregnancy. The difference could be also due to the difference in study subjects, as finding in Nigeria [ 23 ] was only rural dwellers and the study in Zimbabwe [ 24 ] was focused only pregnant women with a lower socioeconomic status, this could result in the overestimation of the prevalence of the problem.

The prevalence of intimate partner violence in this study is more than two times compared to the findings in Nigeria

Section 2: Intimate partner violence

Spousal violence, or more generally violence between intimate partners see Text box 2. Intimate partner violence often occurs as physical violence. However, there are many other forms of violence or abuse, including emotional abuse, verbal abuse, sexual abuse and financial abuse. Intimate partner violence also has a criminal component, as it can involve criminal offences such as assault, uttering threats or harassment, and can even lead to homicide.

Jump to navigation. We carried out this review to find out if asking screening all women attending healthcare settings about their experience of domestic violence from a current or previous partner helps to recognise abused women so that they may be provided with a supportive response and referred on to support services.

Intimate partner violence IPV is abuse or aggression that occurs in a close relationship. IPV can vary in how often it happens and how severe it is. It can range from one episode of violence that could have lasting impact to chronic and severe episodes over multiple years. IPV includes four types of behavior:.

Magnitude of Intimate Partner Violence and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Ethiopia

Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is the most common and major public health problem and human rights issue worldwide and has a negative effect on the lives of both mother and fetus. Despite its prominence, this issue has received little attention in Ethiopia as well as many sub-Saharan African countries. This study assessed the magnitude of intimate partner violence and associated factors among pregnant women in Ofla District, Tigray, Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to 30, , among pregnant women who visited antenatal care in the health facilities. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with violence. The overall prevalence of intimate partner violence during the current pregnancy was More than one-third of pregnant women experienced intimate partner violence during a recent pregnancy. This is high and may lead to health consequences for both mothers and fetuses. Intimate partner violence is defined as the intentional use of physical force or power threatened or actual against a woman or man within a relationship which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, psychological harm, and death [ 1 ].

Preventing Intimate Partner Violence

Read terms. This information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence IPV is a significant yet preventable public health problem that affects millions of women regardless of age, economic status, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or educational background. Individuals who are subjected to IPV may have lifelong consequences, including emotional trauma, lasting physical impairment, chronic health problems, and even death.

Heidi D.

Intimate partner violence IPV is domestic violence by a current or former spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner. The most extreme form of such violence may be termed battering , intimate terrorism , coercive controlling violence , or simply coercive control , in which one person is violent and controlling; this is generally perpetrated by men against women, and is the most likely of the types to require medical services and the use of a women's shelter. The most common but less injurious form of intimate partner violence is situational couple violence also known as situational violence , which is conducted by individuals of both genders nearly equally, [5] [6] [7] and is more likely to occur among younger couples, including adolescents see teen dating violence and those of college age. Intimate partner violence occurs between two people in an intimate relationship.

Intimate partner violence

Intimate partner violence IPV takes place in all settings, in all socioeconomic, religious, ethnic, and cultural groups. The overwhelming global burden of IPV is endured by women, and the most common perpetrators of violence against women are male intimate partners or ex-partners. However, women who are experiencing IPV often do not see themselves as abused. For example, a study found that women were up to ten times more likely to report depression and seventeen times more likely to report anxiety if they were in violent relationships.

Metrics details. Intimate partner violence IPV against women is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite a growing body of research into risk factors for IPV, methodological differences limit the extent to which comparisons can be made between studies. We used data from ten countries included in the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence to identify factors that are consistently associated with abuse across sites, in order to inform the design of IPV prevention programs. Standardised population-based household surveys were done between and One woman aged years was randomly selected from each sampled household.

Domestic or intimate partner violence

Safety Alert: Computer use can be monitored and is impossible to completely clear. GENERAL On average, 24 people per minute are victims of rape, physical violence or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States — more than 12 million women and men over the course of a year. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect suggests that domestic violence may be the single major precursor to child abuse and neglect fatalities in this country. Click to go back to top of page. On average, 24 people per minute are victims of rape, physical violence or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States — more than 12 million women and men over the course of a year. More than 1 in 3 women Nearly half of all women and men in the United States have experienced psychological aggression by an intimate partner in their lifetime Females ages 18 to 24 and 25 to 34 generally experienced the highest rates of intimate partner violence.

Women living with female intimate partners experience less intimate partner violence than women living with male intimate part- ners. Slightly more than

Вода из горячей постепенно превратилась в теплую и, наконец, холодную. Она уже собиралась вылезать, как вдруг ожил радиотелефон. Сьюзан быстро встала и, расплескивая воду, потянулась к трубке, лежавшей на краю раковины. - Дэвид. - Это Стратмор, - прозвучал знакомый голос.

Statistics

Это очень важно, - извиняющимся тоном сказал Беккер. Вопрос национальной безопасности. Консьерж покачал головой: - Невозможно.

Быть может, вы оставите… - Всего на одну минуту.

Intimate Partner Violence

Прошу прощения. Офицер покачал головой, словно не веря своим глазам. - Я должен был вам рассказать… но думал, что тот тип просто псих.

Коммандер был абсолютно убежден в том, что у Хейла не хватит духу на них напасть, но Сьюзан не была так уж уверена в. Хейл теряет самообладание, и у него всего два выхода: выбраться из шифровалки или сесть за решетку.

Ты вскрыла мою электронную почту. - А ты отключил моего Следопыта. Хейл почувствовал, как кровь ударила ему в голову. Он был уверен, что спрятал все следы, и не имел ни малейшего понятия о том, что Сьюзан были известны его действия. Понятно, почему она не хотела верить ни одному его слову.

У вас есть возможность мгновенно получать информацию. Вы можете читать все, что пожелаете, - без всяких вопросов и запросов. Вы выиграли. - Почему бы не сказать - мы выиграли. Насколько мне известно, ты сотрудник АНБ.

И теперь наконец ее получит. Сьюзан будет искать защиту у него, поскольку ей негде больше будет ее найти. Она придет к нему беспомощная, раздавленная утратой, и он со временем докажет ей, что любовь исцеляет .

Comments: 2
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  2. Arashirisar

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